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Showing posts with label Windows. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Windows. Show all posts

Windows Security

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Security Architecture of Windows

 There are three components of Windows Security:
 LSA (Local Security Authority)
 SAM (Security Account Manager)
 SRM (Security Reference Monitor)

LSA (Local Security Authority)

 LSA is the Central Part of NT Security. It is also known as Security Subsystem. The Local Security Authority or LSA is
a key component of the logon process in both Windows NT and Windows 2000. In Windows 2000, the LSA is
responsible for validating users for both local and remote logons. The LSA also maintains the local security policy.

 During the local logon to a machine, a person enters his name and password to the logon dialog. This information
is passed to the LSA, which then calls the appropriate authentication package. The password is sent in a nonreversible
secret key format using a one-way hash function. The LSA then queries the SAM database for the User’s
account information. If the key provided matches the one in the SAM, the SAM returns the users SID and the SIDs
of any groups the user belongs to. The LSA then uses these SIDs to generate the security access token.

SAM (Security Account Manager)

 The Security Accounts Manager is a database in the Windows operating system (OS) that contains user names and
passwords. SAM is part of the registry and can be found on the hard disk.

 This service is responsible for making the connection to the SAM database (Contains available user-accounts and
groups). The SAM database can either be placed in the local registry or in the Active Directory (If available). When
the service has made the connection it announces to the system that the SAM-database is available, so other
services can start accessing the SAM-database.

 In the SAM, each user account can be assigned a Windows password which is in encrypted form. If someone
attempts to log on to the system and the user name and associated passwords match an entry in the SAM, a
sequence of events takes place ultimately allowing that person access to the system. If the user name or
passwords do not properly match any entry in the SAM, an error message is returned requesting that the
information be entered again.

 When you make a New User Account with a Password, it gets stored in the SAM File.

 Windows Security Files are located at


 The moment operating system starts, the SAM file becomes inaccessible.

SRM (Security Reference Monitor)

 The Security Reference Monitor is a security architecture component that is used to control user requests to
access objects in the system. The SRM enforces the access validation and audit generation. Windows NT forbids
the direct access to objects. Any access to an object must first be validated by the SRM. For example, if a user
wants to access a specific file the SRM will be used to validate the request. The Security Reference Monitor
enforces access validation and audit generation policy.

 The reference monitor verifies the nature of the request against a table of allowable access types for each process
on the system. For example, Windows 3.x and 9x operating systems were not built with a reference monitor,
whereas the Windows NT line, which also includes Windows 2000 and Windows XP, was designed with an entirely
different architecture and does contain a reference monitor.

Windows user account architecture

 User account passwords are contained in the SAM in the Hexadecimal Format called Hashes.

 Once the Passwords converted in Hashes, you cannot convert back to the Clear Text.

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Control media players by gesture using webcam

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Now you can control media players by simple gestures using your webcam.........

A software named flutter comes with this feature and it is also absolutely free...... 

It is available for both windows and mac

You can download it from thier official site:-

Here are some of its great features.....

You can try it yourself . It is absolutely free...
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How to Remove a Virus Using Command Prompt

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 Virus is a computer program that can copy itself and infect your computer. These viruses can spread via USB/flash drive or from one computer to other computer by few written codes. There are many antivirus software available to remove viruses from computer. But there are some viruses or suspicious files which can’t be removed by any antivirus software. Some suspicious files such as autorun.inf initiate all the viruses in pc. These files must be removed for safe operation of your pc, because they may lead to data loss, software damages etc. Such viruses and files can be removed by using cmd. In this article we will discuss how to remove a virus using command prompt. Following steps can be used to remove a virus using command prompt from your computer.

  •    Go to start menu and type “cmd” in the search box or Start>all programs>accessories>command prompt.


  • Open the infected drive such as write , g: to go to G drive.
  • Now type dir/w/a . It will show all the files of the drive including hidden files.


  • Locate AUTORUN.INF or any Virus and other suspicious files in the directory.


there was no virus in my drive so only autorun.inf is been highlighted.

  • Type command attrib  -r –a –s –h to remove attributes of corresponding file.


  • Now type del virus name.exe t delete it, eg : del newfolder.exe .
(You can also delete viruses by using following steps:
  • When you find an Autorun.inf file or any other unusual .exe file just rename it.

Syntax for rename is (rename filename.extension new name ,  for example: (rename autorun.inf virus) to rename autorun.inf file. Here I have renamed it by “virus”.

  • Now you can access the defected drive without affecting the virus.
  • To delete the renamed file go to the defected drive and select the file you renamed.

Now delete the harmful renamed files.)
You have deleted that virus successfully but sometimes virus resides in the Recycler folder.To locate this folder:

  • Type cd recycler command.

  • Again type dir/w/a  to locate all file of the folder.
  • Identify malicious files and delete them using above commands.
Follow the above steps carefully and i think this information is enough to remove a virus using command prompt easily.
Important: Make sure that no other processes being running while performing these actions. Best of luck.

Type del autorun.inf to delete autorun.inf file.

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How to Change Processor Name Permanently

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It is very easy to change your processor name permanently by creating a registry key and placing a shortcut to it in the windows start up folder. To do so, just follow the steps given below:-

Steps :-

1.  Open Notepad.

2.  Copy and paste the exact code given below:-

Windows Registry Editor Version 5.00

[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\HARDWARE\DESCRIPTION\System\CentralProcessor\0]"ProcessorNameString"="My Processor name 50000MHz"

To change the processor name, edit the part of the code given in blue. Also understand that \0 in the above code should only be present if Windows store your processor name at that location. Please open Registry Editor and navigate to the above mentioned keys to check whether or not to include the \0.

3.  Click on File Menu, click on Save As and select "All Types" in Save as Type option. Save the file as ProcessorNameChange.reg or *.reg.

4.  Create a new shortcut on your desktop. Enter regedit / S "Location of the .reg file" as the location of the item. For example, enter regedit /S "C:\Processor Name.reg" if your registry file is located in the root of C:\ drive.


5.   Copy the created Shortcut file.

6.  Navigate to C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Start Menu\Programs\Startup (in Windows XP) or toC:\Users\ User-Name\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Windows\Start Menu\Programs\Startup (in Windows 8, Windows 7 and Windows Vista. Also remember that AppData is a hidden folder.)  if C: is your System drive.

7.  Paste the copied file.

This registry file would now execute each time when Windows starts and the Processor Name String would be modified each time. So, even upon restarting your computer, you will see that the changed processor name is permanent.

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How to Set a Video as Your Desktop Wallpaper with VLC

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Are you tired of static desktop wallpapers and want something a bit more entertaining? Today we’ll take a look at setting a video as wallpaper in VLC media player.
Download and install VLC player. You’ll find the download link below. Open VLC and select Tools > Preferences.


On the Preferences windows, select the Video button on the left.


Under Video Settings, select DirectX video output from the Output dropdown list.


Click Save before exiting and then restart VLC.

Next, select a video and begin playing it with VLC. Right-click on the screen, select Video, then DirectX Wallpaper.

sshot-21 copy

You can achieve the same result by selecting Video from the Menu and clicking DirectX 

sshot-19 copy

If you’re using Windows Aero Themes, you may get the warning message below and your theme will switch automatically to a basic theme.

After the Wallpaper is enabled, minimize VLC player and enjoy the show as you work.


When you are ready to switch back to your normal wallpaper, click Video, and then close out of VLC.

           sshot-24 copy

Occasionally we had to manually change our wallpaper back to normal. You can do that by right clicking on the desktop and selecting your theme.



This might not make the most productive desktop environment, but it is pretty cool. It’s definitely not the same old boring wallpaper!

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Make a private folder

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To make Private folder which nobody can open, delete, see properties, rename.
To make such a folder you need to make a folder with any name. For example- manthan on desktop.
And then open command prompt and then type the following command on the screen.

Then type

Cd desktop

Cacls folder /E /P everyone:n

And hit enter the folder is locked
To open the folder just: replace :n with : f
And the folder is opened

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Creating WiFi Hotspot Network in windows 8,8.1 and 7 using Command Prompt

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Step 1: To Create WiFi Hotspot in Windows 8,8.1, Windows 7 PC

First you need to know that whether your PC hardware supports hotspot feature or not. To check this follow the instructions
  • open your command prompt in administrative mode(if you don’t know this post your comment i will tell you)
  • Enter this command  :::   netsh wlan show drivers
                      Create Wifi hotspot in windows 8.1

  • If it show “yes” as you can in image you can create wifi hotspot in your PC.Go ahead you’re almost done.
  • If it shows No you PC can’t create hotspot.
  • Don’t close your command prompt until i say close it because we need it again.

Step 2 : To Create WiFi Hotspot Network in Windows Laptops

Enter the below command (your CMD must be open in administrative mode)
netsh wlan set hostednetwork mode=allow ssid=(Name of wifi here) key=(Your password here)
Hit enter then you will see like in below image.If you see image like below then your doing right.Now your hotspot is activated in your PC.

Create hotspot networki in Laptop

  • Here is my WiFi name and FastTechBuzz is my password.You can change your password if you want.

Step 3: To Create WiFi Hotspot in Windows 8,8.1/7 Computers

This is to switch on the created WiFi network Again Enter the below command.
netsh wlan start hostednetwork
Press Enter >> now you will see the command prompt as below.Now can close your CMD if you want. your hotspot is created you can see it in your other devices.
Create Hotspot using command prompt


  • If you are getting obtaining IP address in your TABLET or mobile (or)
  • Hosted Network couldn’t be started or Any other errors while creating hotspot please use the below method.
  • Create Hotspot in Windows with software
This is to share internet connection with other devices. For this
  • Click on windows button in your keyboard .
  • Then type Network and sharing  as shown in below image
  • click on settings there highlighted with yellow then click on the red marked option.
Network and sharing windows 8.1
After clicking on that red marked option you will see a window then @Left side top CLICK ON CHANGE ADAPTER SETTINGS then you will see a window like below there you can see the created hotspot name with Local area connection 13.
share wifi hotspot
Next choose your presently using internet connection (Here i am connected to internet using my BSNL modem) and right click on it and open properties >> then go sharing tab>>choose Local Area network under Home Networking condition as shown in below image click on OK.
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Create Text Speech Program using Notepad

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This is an amazing trick. By using this trick you can make a program to speak whatever you type. This trick is working on all Microsoft operating system and does not require any programming skills. You have to follow just simple steps and your own Text to Speech  software will be ready. If you show this software to any of your friends he will be certainly impressed with you .
Just follow the step given bellow:-

1. Open Notepad and copy and paste the following code into it

Dim message, sapimessage=InputBox("What do you want me to say?","Speak to Me")Set sapi=CreateObject("sapi.spvoice")sapi.Speak message

2.Now save the notepad file with the name speak.vbs at your desktop.

3.Now double click on speak.vbs type in the box whatever you want your computer to speak for you.

Its a really funny trick to impress everybody with your computer skills.....
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Make simple virus with notepad

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Virus writing code..!!

Friends want to play with your friends computer..?

If yes then start reading this post.

In this article i came with new pranks (or) tricks (or) similar to virus creating ..
ya it's acts like a virus but not virus it's a simple programme.

Materials: NOTEPAD

By using only notepad you can create your own virus don't worry it doesn't effect your PC.

Ok the below are the codes of Virus like acting.

* Convey your friend a lil' message and shut down his / her computer:

Type in notepad:

@echo off
msg * I don't like you
shutdown -c "Error! You are too stupid!" -s

Save it as "Anything.BAT" in All Files and send it.

* Open Notepad continually in your friend's computer:

Type :

@ECHO off
START %SystemRoot%\system32\notepad.exe
GOTO top

Save it as "Anything.BAT" and send it.

* Toggle your friend's Caps Lock button simultaneously:

Type :

Set wshShell =wscript.CreateObject("WScript.Shell")
wscript.sleep 100
wshshell.sendkeys "{CAPSLOCK}"

Save it as "Anything.VBS" and send it.

* Frustrate your friend by making this VBScript hit Enter simultaneously:

Type :

Set wshShell = wscript.CreateObject("WScript.Shell")
wscript.sleep 100
wshshell.sendkeys "~(enter)"

Save it as "Anything.VBS" and send it.

* Frustrate your friend by making this VBScript hit Backspace simultaneously:

Type :

MsgBox "Let's go back a few steps"
Set wshShell =wscript.CreateObject("WScript.Shell")
wscript.sleep 100
wshshell.sendkeys "{bs}"
Save it as "Anything.VBS" and send it.

* Ok this is my favorite , this script hacks your friend's keyboard and make him type "You are a fool" simultaneously , u can change " you are a fool" to any anything u want .

Type :

Set wshShell = wscript.CreateObject("WScript.Shell")
wscript.sleep 100
wshshell.sendkeys "You are a fool."

Save it as "Anything.VBS" and send it.

All this works until system will restart so don't worry

Note:- I am not responsible for anything . Try it on your own risk
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Use your USB pendrive as a Virtual RAM

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Have you ever thought that you can use your USB pen drive as your computer's RAM? I will tell

you how to do this. It is very very simple. The fact that it is so simple is because Windows 7 and

 Windows Vista both comes with a function called "ReadyBoost" which allows us to use our

 USB as System Virtual Memory. There is nothing much to do here. Just insert the Formatted

 Pen drive, Select Properties and go to the "ReadyBoost" tab, from there select "Use This 

Device", select the maximum memory available and click on apply. this ought to make it as a

 virtual system memory

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How To Hide Files Behind JPEG Image

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Hiding files by some sort of software has been a very common way till now, but if you are looking for something different you can do it by hiding a file behind a jpg image.
It is a quite secured way to hide a file behind JPEG image because none will think about the existence of a file inside a jpg image. It is also free from the hazards of installing those software and consequently nobody will notice there is a secret file hidden behind a jpg picture file.

But here I am going to introduce another interesting way. You can use this simple trick to hide any kind of file like txt, mp3, exe, avi or whatever else. Besides this you can hide multiple number of files behind a single jpg file. When any one will see the picture he/she will just consider it as a picture and even if he/she double click on it then the picture will be opened as normal. Isn’t it sounds interesting?
To execute this task you must need WinZip or WinRar to be installed in your PC. You can download it absolutely free from internet. I have described the whole process here.

How to hide the files behind JPEG image

Step 1. Create a folder anywhere in your PC e.g. C > Softslas and keep all the files you want to hide as well as the jpg image you will use to keep that files in.
Step 2. Just select all the files you want to hide, and by right clicking on them select the option of add them to a compressed ZIP or RAR file. Only compress the files you want to hide, not the jpg image. Lets name it as “Secret.rar”.
You’ll see that there is those files, the jpg image and a compressed archive named Secret.rar inside the folder Softslas.

Step 3. Now i will tell you how to make the trick.Click on Start menu, click Run and type “cmd” (without the inverted commas), press enter and you will see the command prompt window has been opened. Type cd to get into the root directory and again type cd followed by the folder’s name you want to hide i.e. “cd Softslas”. Now you are inside the directory C > Softslas>.
Step 4. Suppose the jpg image have name of “Image.jpg”. Type the following line
copy /b Image.jpg + Secret.rar Image.jpg
(Omit the quotes) and press enter.You will get a response in the command prompt like below.

Be sure that the compressed file has the extension of . ZIP or .RAR. As I have heard about some problems people faced while using WinZIP, I recommend you to use WinRAR instead of WinZIP.
That’s all you have to do. Now you have a jpg image with your secret files inside it. If you check the picture size you will see it has been increased by same size that was of the compressed archive. Now you can the delete the . RAR file and the file1 and file2.

How to access the hidden files

Just right click on the file and chose open with WinRar.Then you can see the file you hide behind the picture. Another way to access the hidden file is that just change the extension of the file to .RAR and open the file using WinRar and then extract them.
Thats it.....
You just created a hidden folder....
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How To View All Saved Passwords in Google Chrome

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When you log in a website for the first time, Google chrome ask you to save the username and password so that next time you log in ,you won't need to fill them again.This option is activated only if you click on "Save password" when browser ask you for it.
  However later on if you need to view the passwords or want to remove the password for a website,you might find it difficult.In this post I will tell you how to manage passwords stored in Google chrome.

  •  Open Google Chrome and go to settings.
  •  Click on advanced tab .
  •  Under password and forms ,select manage saved passwords.
  •  A new window will open that shows saved passwords for different websites.
  •  You can see the password for a website by selecting it and clicking show button.
  •  If you want to remove saved password for a website simply click on cross.
  •  It also shows a list of websites that you chosen as 'never save password '. 

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How to Hide any Local Drive using Command prompt

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 Today Computer World tutorial is about how to hide a local drive without any 3rd party software. There are lots of free and payable software’s available to hide local drive, but I’m not gonna talk about hide a local drive using a software. In this tutorial I’ll show you an easiest way to hide local drive without using software. This will save your both money and time.

There are 3 methods available to hide a local drive without using any software
1. Hide a drive through gpedit2. Hide a drive through regedit3. Hide a drive using command prompt
 Now Im covering, command prompt way of doing it. So lets see how to do.

How to Hide a Local Drive using command prompt?

1. Click on Start - Run

2. In Run box type cmd and hit Enter. Now Command Prompt window will appear.

3. In command prompt, type diskpart and hit Enter.

4. Then type list volume and hit Enter.

Now it will display the list of all your computer drives details.

5. Then type the Drive Letter which you want to hide.
If you want to hide volume E, type select volume E and hit Enter.

Now follow mentioned massage will appear to you.
Volume 4 is the selected volume

6. After that, type remove letter E and hit an Enter.

That’s all, you have done. Now restart your computer once. When you start your PC again, you want be able to see the particular drive in My Computer.

How to get back Hidden Drive again in My Computer.

Do the procedure which i have mentioned in step 1,2,3,4 a
nd 5 again.

Click Start —> Run —> cmd —>

Then type diskpart - list volume - select volume E

After that type assign letter E and hit Enter.

That’s all !! You have got back the hidden local drive. Once again restart your PC, now you will be able to see hidden local drive in My Computer.

Note: Your PC doesn’t lost any data by doing this trick .
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How to Create a Password Protected Folder without any Extra Software

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There are a lot of methods that you can use to create a password protected folder, most of which require the use of some third party software. Using this neat method you can hide your folders with a quick batch script.
It’s important to note that this will not actually conceal your data from somebody that knows what they are doing.
Note: if you are a beginner you should be careful with this script

Create Your Password Protected Folder

Before you get started you need to create a folder that will house your password protected folder, this is just an ordinary folder and can be located anywhere and named anything.
Navigate into your newly created folder and create a new Text Document. This can easily be done from the context menu.

Open the document, now paste the following code into the contents of the document:

title Folder Private 
if EXIST "HTG Locker" goto UNLOCK 
if NOT EXIST Private goto MDLOCKER 
echo Are you sure you want to lock the folder(Y/N) 
set/p "cho=>" 
if %cho%==Y goto LOCK 
if %cho%==y goto LOCK 
if %cho%==n goto END 
if %cho%==N goto END 
echo Invalid choice. 
ren Private "HTG Locker" 
attrib +h +s "HTG Locker" 
echo Folder locked 
goto End 
echo Enter password to unlock folder 
set/p "pass=>" 
attrib -h -s "HTG Locker" 
ren "HTG Locker" Private 
echo Folder Unlocked successfully 
goto End 
echo Invalid password 
goto end 
md Private 
echo Private created successfully 
goto End 


Locked Folder Script

Just Rename this to locker.bat

Change the PASSWORD_GOES_HERE text to the password you want to set. Now go ahead and save the file as locker.bat.


Once the file is saved as a batch file you can delete the original text file

Now run your batch file by double clicking on it–the first time you run it, it will create a folder called Private. This is where you can store all your secret things. When you have finished adding all your stuff to the Private folder, run locker.bat again.
This time you will be asked if you sure that you want to lock the folder, press the “Y” key and hit enter to lock your folder.

You will see that your Private folder quickly disappears.
If you run the script yet again, you will prompted for a password.
If you enter the same password as you set in the script the Private folder will reappear if you enter the incorrect password the script will just Terminate.

Thats it............
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